Eye-tracking is a technology that allows you to observe and deeply understand how your team is operating within their work environment. It allows you to observe procedures and processes from a privileged point of view: a first-person perspective.
By observing the interaction of all team members with their surroundings at different stages of the production processes we can highlight possible areas of friction, fine tune your improvement interventions and observe the performance of highly qualified professionals, with the aim of illustrating procedures to the training team and reducing risks.
Why a professional performance evaluation?
The tasks that make up the different stages of your internal processes can be completed in different ways. These differences depend on the experience and technique of the different operators.
Different methods will lead to different results: understanding how your team accomplishes each task can help you identify the best practices that can optimise each step of the process, capitalising on the knowledge gained from field experience, reducing error and increasing safety.
The eye-tracking technique allows us to observe attention distribution of the members of your teams while operating and performing a given task.
The eye-tracker is a non-invasive tool that can be used together with other protective devices without affecting the task nor the safety during execution. At the same time, it allows to record and re-watch real time data, where operators are executing a task and putting into practice what would otherwise remain tacit knowledge.
What we measure
Eye-tracking allows the collection and analysis of a wide range of data that can be used as performance indicators.
Classic outputs include heatmapsindicating the areas of interest on which gaze lingers for longer or shorter periods of time, without, however, giving us more information about temporality and consequentiality, and gaze plots, which are visualizations of user's observation patterns. Gaze plots also contain temporal information about the consequentiality of eye movements (saccades) and fixations.
Each answer requires a different research question
After an eye-tracking recording session we'll get many observable variables and useful data available.
The right variable to observe and extract from such data depends - as always - on our research question.
Performance and Experience
The link between saccades and fixations, for example, can give us some information regarding the experience of the operator. Scientific Research on the topic shows that people with lower levels of expertise will have and higher saccades/fixations ratio as they'll tend to move their gaze more frequently in the search for correct information. Experts, on the other hand, will show a lower rate of eye-movements and an higher number of fixations – specifically within the areas of interest. However, through practice and experience, all operators generally become quicker and more accurate when searching for relevant information.
Process clarity and safety
La attention distribution within the areas of interest - for example, within critical areas where errors may occur and potential safety hazards arise. If the attention in these areas is below a certain threshold, risks might not be adequately processed, assessed and avoided. Thus, human error may occur. It is therefore necessary to intervene with ad specific measures.
The picture shows a comparison of the exploratory patterns of an art expert (second and fourth column) compared with those of a non-expert during free exploration sessions of two works of art.
Source: Experiencing Art: the influencer of Expertise and painting abstraction level.